Salvia divinorum

Salvia, salvinorins & derivatives



Jump to:




  • Salvia divinorum, aka 'salvia,' emerges as a recreational drug

  • Salvinorin A found to be the primary psychoactive compound; several salvinorins are identified

  • Salvinorin A acts as an agonist at the kappa-opioid receptor

  • Salvinorin A demonstrates antinociceptive effects in mice

  • Potential therapeutic value is discussed prospectively

Page 1

Valdés, Díaz & Paul (1983). Ethnopharmacology of ska María Pastora (Salvia divinorum, Epling and Játiva-M.). Journal of Ethnopharmacology.

Siebert (1994). Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A: new pharmacologic findings. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.

Valdés (1994). Salvia divinorum and the unique diterpene hallucinogen, salvinorin (divinorin) A. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs.

Giroud et al. (2000). Salvia divinorum: an hallucinogenic mint which might become a new recreational drug in Switzerland. Forensic Science International.

Hanes (2001). Antidepressant effects of the herb saliva divinorum: A case report. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology.

Valdés et al. (2001). Salvinorin C, a new neoclerodane diterpene from a bioactive fraction of the hallucinogenic Mexican mint Salvia divinorum. Organic Letters.

Roth et al. (2002). Salvinorin A: a potent naturally occurring nonnitrogenous kappa opioid selective agonist.

Bigham et al. (2003). Divinatorins A-C, new neoclerodane diterpenoids from the controlled sage Salvia divinorum. Journal of Natural Products.

Munro & Rizzacasa (2003). Salvinorins D-F, new neoclerodane diterpenoids from Salvia divinorum, and an improved method for the isolation of salvinorin A. Journal of Natural Products.

Butelman, Harris & Kreek (2004). The plant-derived hallucinogen, salvinorin A, produces κ-opioid agonist-like discriminative effects in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology.

Chavkin et al. (2004). Salvinorin A, an active component of the hallucinogenic sage Salvia divinorum is a highly efficacious kappa-opioid receptor agonist: structural and functional considerations. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Siebert (2004). Localization of salvinorin A and related compounds in glandular trichomes of the psychoactive sage, Salvia divinorum. Annals of Botany.

Tidgewell et al. (2004). A facile method for the preparation of deuterium labeled salvinorin A: synthesis of [2,2,2-2H3]-salvinorin A. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters.

Bücheler et al. (2005). Use of nonprohibited hallucinogenic plants: increasing relevance for public health? a case report and literature review on the consumption of salvia. Pharmacopsychiatry.

Fantegrossi (2005). Kappa-opioid receptor-mediated effects of the plant-derived hallucinogen, salvinorin A, on inverted screen performance in the mouse. Behavioural Pharmacology.

Pichini et al. (2005). Quantification of the plant-derived hallucinogen Salvinorin A in conventional and non-conventional biological fluids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after Salvia divinorum smoking. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry.

Prisizano (2005). Psychopharmacology of the hallucinogenic sage Salvia divinorum. Life Sciences.

Harding et al. (2005). Neoclerodane diterpenes as a novel scaffold for mu opioid receptor ligands. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.

Harding et al. (2005). Salvinicins A and B, new neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum.

Lee et al. (2005). New neoclerodane diterpenoids isolated from the leaves of Salvia divinorum and their binding affinities for human kappa opioid receptors. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry.

Munro et al. (2005). Studies toward the pharmacophore of salvinorin A, a potent kappa opioid receptor agonist. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.

Schmidt et al. (2005). Pharmacokinetics of the plant-derived kappa-opioid hallucinogen salvinorin A in nonhuman primates. Synapse.

Zhang et al. (2005). Effects of the plant-derived hallucinogen salvinorin A on basal dopamine levels in the caudate putamen and in a conditioned place aversion assay in mice: Agonist actions at kappa opioid receptors. Psychopharmacology.

Ansonoff et al. (2006). Antinociceptive and hypothermic effects of salvinorin a are abolished in a novel strain of κ-opioid receptor-1 knockout mice. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Bertea et al. (2006). PCR and PCR-RFLP of the 5S-rRNA-NTS region and salvinorin A analyses for the rapid and unequivocal determination of Salvia divinorum. Phytochemistry.

Capasso et al. (2006). The hallucinogenic herb Salvia divinorum and its active ingredient salvinorin A inhibit enteric cholinergic transmission in the guinea-pig ileum. Neurogastroenterology and Motility.

Carlezon et al. (2006). Depressive-like effects of the κ-opioid receptor agonist salvinorin a on behavior and neurochemistry in rats. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

González et al. (2006). Pattern of use and subjective effects of Salvia divinorum among recreational users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

Harding (2006). Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: selective modification of the furan ring. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters.

Harding et al. (2006). Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: semisynthesis of salvinicins A and B and other chemical transformations of salvinorin A. Journal of Natural Products.

Imanshahidi & Hosseinzadeh (2006). The pharmacological effects of Salvia species on the central nervous system. Phytotherapy Research.

John, French & Erlichman (2006). The antinociceptive effect of salvinorin A in mice. European Journal of Pharmacology.

Lee et al. (2006). Synthesis and in vitro pharmacological studies of new C(4)-modified salvinorin A analogues. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters.

Medana et al. (2006). Determination of salvinorins and divinatorins in Salvia divinorum leaves by liquid chromatography/multistage mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry.

Shirota, Nagamatsu & Sekita (2006). Neo-clerodane diterpenes from the hallucinogenic sage Salvia divinorum. Journal of Natural Products.

Siemann et al. (2006). [Salvia divinorum--representation of a new drug in the Internet]. Gesundheitswesen.

Tidgewell (2006). Synthesis of salvinorin A analogues as opioid receptor probes. Journal of Natural Products.

Vortherms & Roth (2006). Salvinorin A: from natural product to human therapeutics. Molecular Interventions.

Wolowich, Perkins & Cienki (2006). Analysis of the psychoactive terpenoid salvinorin A content in five Salvia divinorum herbal products. Pharmacotherapy.

Appel & Kim-Appel (2007). The rise of a new psychoactive agent: Salvia divinorum. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.

Braida et al. (2007). Hallucinatory and rewarding effect of salvinorin A in zebrafish: κ-opioid and CB₁-cannabinoid receptor involvement. Psychopharmacology.

Butelman et al. (2007). Effects of salvinorin a, a κ-opioid hallucinogen, on a neuroendocrine biomarker assay in nonhuman primates with high κ-receptor homology to humans. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutic.

Dalgarno (2007). Subjective effects of Salvia divinorum? Journal of Psychoactive Drugs.

Grundmann et al. (2007). Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A: an update on pharmacology and analytical methodology. Planta Medica.

Holden et al. (2007). Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: exploration of the 1-position. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters.

Kutrzeba et al. (2007). Biosynthesis of salvinorin A proceeds via the deoxyxylulose phosphate pathway. Phytochemistry.

Li et al. (2007). Isolation and chemical modification of clerodane diterpenoids from Salvia species as potential agonists at the kappa-opioid receptor. Chemistry & Biodiversity.

Luciano et al. (2007). DNA internal standard for the quantitative determination of hallucinogenic plants in plant mixtures. Forensic Science International: Genetics.

Simpson et al. (2007). Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: preparation and opioid receptor activity of salvinicin analogues. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.

Singh (2007). Adolescent salvia substance abuse. Addiction.

Vortherms et al. (2007). Differential helical orientations among related G protein-coupled receptors provide a novel mechanism for selectivity. Studies with salvinorin A and the kappa-opioid receptor. The Journal of Biological Chemistry.