Psilocybe mushrooms, psilocybin & psilocin

Psilocybin is a naturally occurring compound found in members of the Psilocybe mushroom genus. While the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Psilocybe mushrooms are most often associated with psilocybin, but psilocin, the active metabolite of psilocybin, is actually responsible for these effects.

Clinical research on psilocybin has only recently garnered momentum, with the FDA recently approving Phase 2b trials for the treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Psilocybin has shown efficacy in the treatment of TRD, cluster-headaches, anxiety & depression associated with terminal illness, and drug addiction.



By Year



Selected Publications


  • Clinical potential of psilocybin as a treatment for mental health conditions (2018)


  • Effect of psilocin on extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels in the mesoaccumbens and mesocortical pathway in awake rats (2015)

Safety & Toxicity

  • Survey study of challenging experiences after ingesting psilocybin mushrooms: Acute and enduring positive and negative consequences (2016)

  • Recreational use, analysis and toxicity of tryptamines (2015)

  • Harm potential of magic mushroom use: a review (2011)

Misuse & Abuse

  • The abuse potential of medical psilocybin according to the 8 factors of the Controlled Substances Act (2018)

  • A survey of hallucinogenic mushroom use, factors related to usage, and perceptions of use among college students (2013)

  • Unrecognized magic mushroom abuse in a 28-year-old man (2008)


  • Increased amygdala responses to emotional faces after psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression (2017)

  • Finding the self by losing the self: Neural correlates of ego‐dissolution under psilocybin (2015)

  • Psilocybin-induced spiritual experiences and insightfulness are associated with synchronization of neuronal oscillations (2015)

  • Effects of psilocybin on hippocampal neurogenesis and extinction of trace fear conditioning (2013)


  • Positive subjective experiences reported following a high dose of psilocybin in healthy volunteers (2018)

  • Increased nature relatedness and decreased authoritarian political views after psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression (2018)

  • Increased emotional empathy after psilocybin in healthy volunteers (2017)


  • The quality of a psychedelic experience on psilocybin predicts therapeutic efficacy (how well it will work) in the treatment of treatment-resistant depression (2018)

  • Six-month follow-up of a study using psilocybin to treat tobacco addiction (2017)

  • Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized controlled trial (2016)

  • Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: A proof-of-concept study (2015)

  • Potential therapeutic effects of psilocybin/psilocin are minimized while possible adverse reactions are overrated (2014)