Iboga, ibogaine, noribogaine & 18-MC

Ibogaine is a naturally occurring compound most associated with the Central African shrub Tabernanthe iboga, although it can be found in other species of the Apocynaceae family. Clinical interest in ibogaine stems from observations of antiaddictive effects in cases of severe heroin addiction. Noribogaine, a naturally occurring metabolite of ibogaine, and 18-MC, a synthetic derivative, have also shown to have antiaddictive properties.

Ibogaine is undoubtedly the most dangerous compound represented on Enpsychlopaedia, and as such, a great deal of caution should be given to its use and application. It is known to disrupt proper function of the heart, and can be fatal, even when used properly.

However, a growing number of addicts testify to the healing potential of this drug, sometimes saving them from a grim alternative. Part of the intrigue surrounding ibogaine is its ability to reverse well-entrenched (often a decade or more) addictions with only a single experience - this is in sharp contrast to current methods of maintenance therapy or risky attempts at detoxification.



By Year



Selected Publications


  • The need for ibogaine in drug and alcohol addiction treatment (2011)

  • Ibogaine--be informed before you promote or prescribe (2011)


  • On the relationship between ibogaine and noribogaine (2018)

  • Noribogaine is a G-protein biased κ-opioid receptor agonist (2015)

  • Ascending-dose study of noribogaine in healthy volunteers: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and tolerability (2015)

  • Ibogaine and the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (2012)

Safety & Toxicity

  • The effects of ibogaine on uterine smooth muscle contractions: Relation to the activity of antioxidant enzymes (2018)

  • Anti-addiction drug ibogaine prolongs the action potential in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (2017)

  • Ibogaine-associated cardiac arrest and death: case report and review of the literature (2016)

  • How toxic is ibogaine? (2016)

  • Anti‐addiction drug ibogaine inhibits hERG channels: A cardiac arrhythmia risk (2014)

Misuse & Abuse

  • Ibogaine toxicity in a case of good intentions (2016)

  • Death related to consumption of Rauvolfia sp. powder mislabeled as Tabernanthe iboga (2016)

  • Mania following use of ibogaine: A case series (2015)


  • 18-Methoxycoronaridine acts in the medial habenula to attenuate behavioral and neurochemical sensitization to nicotine (2016)


  • Ibogaine acute administration in rats promotes wakefulness, long-lasting REM sleep suppression, and a distinctive motor profile (2018)

  • Examination of the phenomenology of the ibogaine treatment experience: Role of altered states of consciousness and psychedelic experiences (2017)

  • Effects of low dose ibogaine on subjective mood state and psychological performance (2016)


  • Ibogaine treatment outcomes for opioid dependence from a twelve-month follow-up observational study (2018)

  • Acute oral 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) decreases both alcohol intake and IV nicotine self-administration in rats (2016)