Amino Acid: these are the building blocks of proteins - small molecules possessing a nitrogenous functional group, or an amine. There are 20 basic amino acids in humans. See here for more

Biosynthesis: the production of complex molecules within living organisms or cells.

Endogenous: growing or originating within the organism, tissue or cell.

Entropic Brain Theory:

Functional Groups: specific substituents (moieties) of atoms or bonds within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. See here for more

Inhibition: the action of inhibiting, restricting, or hindering a process.

Inhibitory: slowing down or preventing a process, reaction, or function.

Integrated Information Theory:

Large Scale Brain Networks:

Lipid: any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They include many natural oils, waxes, and steroids.

Monoamine: a compound having a single amine group in its molecule, especially one that is a neurotransmitter (e.g., serotonin, norepinephrine).

Monoamine Reuptake Inhibitor (MAOI): a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).

Neuron: the basic cellular processing unit of the brain, neurons communicate via electrochemical signals. An electrical charge travels through a neuron to the end of its extension, or axon, where it releases a neurotransmitter to interact with the next neuron. See here for more.

Neuropeptide: any of a group of compounds that act as neurotransmitters and are short-chain polypeptides.

Neuroplasticity: refers to the how plastic, or changeable, the brain is. When the brain is in a highly neuroplastic state, it is more susceptible to outside influence and new learning. Psychedelics temporarily increase neuroplasticity, allowing patients to work through psychological trauma while reinforcing a positive perspective. See here for more

Neurotransmission: See here for more

Neurotransmitters: small messenger molecules synthesized in neurons and released into synapses to affect downstream cells. See here for more.

Peptides, Polypeptides & Proteins: chains of amino acids of varying lengths. A chain of 2-9 amino acids is considered a peptide; 10-49 amino acids is a polypeptide; and a chain of 50 or more amino acids is a protein.

Receptor: referring specifically to biochemical receptors, these are protein complexes (multiple proteins aggregated into a larger structure) primarily located in on the postsynaptic membrane. When a neurotransmitter molecule binds to a receptor, it induces a change of shape, either allowing or disallowing the passage of ions through the membrane. See here for more

Solubility: the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.


Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1): a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein encoded by the TAAR1 gene.

Trace Amine: an endogenous group of trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonists – and hence, monoaminergic neuromodulators – that are structurally and metabolically related to classical monoamine neurotransmitters.